Last update: 2022-06-07
- Unwashed hands (after defecating or using a toilet)
- Food or beverages contaminated by dirty hands or flies
- Water contaminated with human waste (stools)
- Tiredness (fatigue), headache, stomach pain and fever.
- Possible diarrhoea in young children, or constipation in older children and adults.
- In severe cases, confusion, shock, internal bleeding and death.
- Safe, clean drinking water (including a clean, covered water container in the household)
- Use of appropriate sanitation facilities (sound, clean latrines)
- Handwashing with soap (especially after using the toilet or cleaning a baby)
- Good food hygiene (thoroughly cooked food, covered food, clean utensils, etc.)
- Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life
- Routine vaccination
- Social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Children who are malnourished
- People, especially children, with weakened immune systems (for example from HIV infection)
- People living in areas that have poor water, sanitation and hygiene facilities and services
If an epidemic occurs
- Detect and refer cases to health facilities
- Promote safe, clean drinking water (including a clean, covered water container in the household)
- Promote use of appropriate sanitation facilities (sound, clean latrines)
- Promote handwashing with soap (especially after using the toilet or cleaning a baby)
- Promote good food hygiene (thoroughly cooked food, covered food, clean utensils, etc.)
- Support mass vaccination campaigns
- Increase social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Encourage breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding when an infant is sick
Community-based assessment - questions
- Make a map of the community and mark the information you gather on the map. Record other details.
- When did people start to fall sick with typhoid fever?
- How many people have fallen sick with typhoid fever? Where?
- How many people have died from typhoid fever? Where?
- How many people live in the affected community or area?
- How many children under five years of age live in the area?
- Who and where are the vulnerable people?
- Are children in the affected community generally well nourished?
- Do people always have enough food?
- How common is breastfeeding?
- Where are the local health facilities and services? (Include traditional and community carers.)
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about caring for and feeding sick people in the community? When babies and infants are sick, do women continue to breastfeed them?
- Where do people obtain their drinking water? Is the source safe? Do people treat their
- What sanitation facilities and communal latrines are available? Do people use them?
- What handwashing facilities are available? Do they have soap?
- Is a social mobilization or health promotion programme in place?
- Is a vaccination programme planned or in place?
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about hygiene, sanitation and water?
- Which sources or channels of information do people use most?
- Are rumours or is misinformation about typhoid fever spreading in the community?