Last update: 2022-06-07
- Unwashed hands (after defecating or using a toilet)
- Food or beverages contaminated by dirty hands or flies
- Water contaminated with human waste (stools)
- Tiredness (fatigue), headache, stomach pain and fever.
- Possible diarrhoea in young children, or constipation in older children and adults.
- In severe cases, confusion, shock, internal bleeding and death.
- Safe, clean drinking water (including a clean, covered water container in the household)
- Use of appropriate sanitation facilities (sound, clean latrines)
- Handwashing with soap (especially after using the toilet or cleaning a baby)
- Good food hygiene (thoroughly cooked food, covered food, clean utensils, etc.)
- Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life
- Routine vaccination
- Social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Children who are malnourished
- People, especially children, with weakened immune systems (for example from HIV infection)
- People living in areas that have poor water, sanitation and hygiene facilities and services
If an epidemic occurs
- Detect and refer cases to health facilities
- Promote safe, clean drinking water (including a clean, covered water container in the household)
- Promote use of appropriate sanitation facilities (sound, clean latrines)
- Promote handwashing with soap (especially after using the toilet or cleaning a baby)
- Promote good food hygiene (thoroughly cooked food, covered food, clean utensils, etc.)
- Support mass vaccination campaigns
- Increase social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Encourage breastfeeding and continued breastfeeding when an infant is sick
Community-based assessment - questions
- Make a map of the community and mark the information you gather on the map. Record other details.
- When did people start to fall sick with typhoid fever?
- How many people have fallen sick with typhoid fever? Where?
- How many people have died from typhoid fever? Where?
- How many people live in the affected community or area?
- How many children under five years of age live in the area?
- Who and where are the vulnerable people?
- Are children in the affected community generally well nourished?
- Do people always have enough food?
- How common is breastfeeding?
- Where are the local health facilities and services? (Include traditional and community carers.)
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about caring for and feeding sick people in the community? When babies and infants are sick, do women continue to breastfeed them?
- Where do people obtain their drinking water? Is the source safe? Do people treat their
- What sanitation facilities and communal latrines are available? Do people use them?
- What handwashing facilities are available? Do they have soap?
- Is a social mobilization or health promotion programme in place?
- Is a vaccination programme planned or in place?
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about hygiene, sanitation and water?
- Which sources or channels of information do people use most?
- Are rumours or is misinformation about typhoid fever spreading in the community?
25. Mass vaccination campaigns 24. Routine vaccinations 01. Community-based surveillance 02. Community mapping 03. Communicating with the community 04. Community referral to health facilities 05. Volunteer protection and safety 12. Managing fever 13. Breastfeeding 19. Psychosocial support 29. Hygiene promotion 30. Clean, safe household water 31. Good food hygiene 32. Sanitation 33. Encouraging the use and maintanace of latrines 34. Handwashing with soap 43. Social mobilization and behaviour change