Last update: 2022-06-07
- Unwashed hands, objects contaminated with human waste (stools)
- Food and water contaminated with human waste (focus especially on fruits,
- raw vegetables, cold meat, raw shellfish and ice)
- Close physical contact with an infectious person (not casual everyday contact)
- Some people with Hepatitis A, especially children, do not show signs of disease at all.
- Symptoms can include tiredness, fever, loss of appetite, stomach pain, nausea, dark urine and
- yellowing of the skin or whites of the eyes (jaundice).
- Handwashing with soap (especially after using the toilet or cleaning a baby)
- Safe, clean drinking water (including a clean, covered water container in the household)
- Use of appropriate sanitation facilities (sound, clean latrines)
- Good food hygiene (thoroughly cooked food, covered food, clean utensils, etc.)
- Social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Routine vaccination
- Older children and adults
- People living in areas that have poor water, sanitation and hygiene facilities and services
- People who live in crowded conditions
If an epidemic occurs
- Detect and refer cases to health facilities
- Promote handwashing with soap (especially after using the toilet or cleaning a baby)
- Promote safe, clean drinking water (including a clean, covered water container in the household)
- Promote use of appropriate sanitation facilities (sound, clean latrines)
- Promote good food hygiene (thoroughly cooked food, covered food, clean utensils, etc.)
- Increase social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Support mass vaccination campaign
- Promote recommended health practices
Community-based assessment - questions
Make a map of the community and mark the information you gather on the map. Record other details.
- When did people start to fall sick with hepatitis A?
- How many people have fallen sick with hepatitis A? Where?
- How many people have died from hepatitis A? Where?
- How many people live in the affected community or area? How many children under five years of age live in the area?
- Who and where are the vulnerable people?
- Are children in the affected community generally well nourished?
- Do people always have enough food?
- How common is breastfeeding?
- Where do people obtain their drinking water? Is the source safe? Do people treat their water?
- What sanitation facilities (including communal latrines) are available? Do people use them?
- What handwashing facilities are available? Do they have soap?
- Where are the local health facilities and services? (Include traditional and community carers.)
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about caring for and feeding sick people? When babies and infants are sick, do women continue to breastfeed them?
- Is a vaccination programme planned or in place?
- Is a social mobilization or health promotion programme in place?
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about hygiene, sanitation and water?
- Which sources or channels of information do people use most?
- Are rumours or is misinformation about hepatitis A spreading in the community?
- Can people identify the signs and symptoms of dehydration?
- Do people know how to make oral rehydration solution (ORS)?
- Do they have resources at hand to make it?
- Do people know how to treat water?