Last update: 2022-11-16
- Unwashed hands
- Food or water contaminated by waste from people
- Unwashed fruits and vegetables/food washed or prepared with contaminated water
- Close physical contact (such as oral-anal sex) with a sick person (not passed through casual contact)
Most vulnerable to severe consequences
- Adults often develop more severe symptoms than children
- Loss of appetite
- Abdominal pain
- Dark urine
- Yellowing of the skin and/or mucosae (jaundice)
** Many people (especially children) show no symptoms, even though they are infected and can spread the disease **
If an epidemic occurs
Monitoring the community and identifying sick people
Treatment and management
- Refer symptomatic cases to health facilities
- Provide psychosocial support to the sick person and their family members
Sanitation and waste management
- Promote good hand hygiene (handwashing with soap)
- BEFORE: preparing food; eating; feeding a child; treating wounds; or caring for sick people
- AFTER: using the toilet or cleaning a baby; touching garbage or waste; touching or feeding animals; blowing nose, coughing, or sneezing; treating wounds; or caring for sick people
Food and water hygiene and safety
- Encourage household water treatment for safe drinking water
- Store water in clean, covered water container
- Promote thorough cleaning, cooking, and storage of food
- Cover and store food safely (protected from insect/animal contamination)
- Use clean utensils and storage containers
- Encourage exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, and complementary breastfeeding until the age of two years (especially when a child is sick)
Social mobilization and health promotion
- Find out the specific advice being given by health and other relevant authorities
- Offer support and encouragement to follow the advice
- Try to gain understanding about if and why health practice advice is not being followed
- With the guidance of your supervisor and health authorities, work with communities to overcome barriers to following health advice and recommended practices
- Support routine and mass vaccination campaigns
Community-based assessment - questions
- Make a map of the community.
- Mark the following information on the map:
- How many people have fallen sick with hepatitis A? Where?
- How many people have died? Where? When?
- Who and where are the vulnerable people?
- Where are the local health facilities and services? (include traditional healers)
- Where do people obtain their drinking water?
- Record the following information on the back of the map:
- When did people start to fall sick with hepatitis A?
- How many people live in the affected community? How many are children under five years?
- Is breastfeeding common?
- Is the water source safe?
- Do people treat their drinking water?
- How do they do it?
- What sanitation facilities are available? (put communal toilets/latrines on map)
- Do people use them?
- What handwashing facilities are available? (put communal handwashing stations on map)
- Do they have soap?
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about caring for and feeding sick people? Consider any differences in roles and responsibilities between men and women.
- When babies and infants are sick, do women continue to breastfeed them?
- Is a social mobilization or health promotion programme in place?
- Is a vaccination programme planned or in place?
- What are the habits, practices and beliefs about hygiene, sanitation and water?
- What are the barriers people face in accessing water points and sanitation and hygiene facilities, of all gender identities, ages, disabilities and backgrounds
- Which sources do people use/trust the most for information?
- Are there rumours or misinformation about Hepatitis A? What are the rumours?
01. Community-based surveillance 02. Community mapping 03. Communicating with the community 04. Community referral to health facilities 05. Volunteer protection and safety 12. Managing fever 19. Psychosocial support 29. Hygiene promotion 30. Clean, safe household water 31. Good food hygiene 32. Sanitation 33. Encouraging the use and maintanace of latrines 34. Handwashing with soap 43. Social mobilization and behaviour change