Last update: 2022-06-07
- Water contaminated by urine from an infected rodent or animal enters the eyes, nose, mouth or a skin cut
- Water or food is consumed that is contaminated with urine from an infected rodent or animal
- Can be mild.
- Can include nausea, headaches, stomach or muscle pain, vomiting, diarrhoea or fever.
- In severe cases, may cause jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), kidney failure, bleeding from the lungs, or meningitis.
- Prevent contact with contaminated water, including by wearing appropriate protective clothing or equipment
- Shower or bath after water sports
- Wear protective clothes during contact with animals
- Employ social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Use safe, well-maintained sources of drinking water (that cannot be contaminated during a flood)
- People living in flooded areas (for example, after a cyclone), especially if they have poor rubbish disposal systems
- People who work closely with animals or in sewers (including farmers, veterinarians, slaughterhouse workers, river fish workers)
If an epidemic occurs
- Detect people sick with leptospirosis and refer them to health facilities
- Increase social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Encourage people to avoid contact with contaminated water, avoid swimming or fishing, and wear appropriate personal protective equipment
- Treat drinking water sources that may be contaminated, especially during and after floods
Community-based assessment - questions
Make a map of the community and mark the information you gather on the map. Record other details.
- When did people start to fall sick with leptospirosis?
- How many people have fallen sick with leptospirosis? Where?
- How many people have died? Where?
- How many people live in the affected community or area? How many children under five years of age live in the area?
- Who and where are the vulnerable people?
- Is the community (or are some parts of it) flooded?
- Might some lakes, ponds, canals etc. in the community be contaminated?
- Where do people obtain their drinking water? Has it been contaminated by flood water?
- Where are the local health facilities and services? (Include traditional and community carers from whom people seek advice.)
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about caring for and feeding sick people?
- Is a social mobilization or health promotion programme in place?
- Which sources of information do people use most?
- Are rumours or is misinformation about leptospirosis spreading in the community?
01. Community-based surveillance 02. Community mapping 03. Communicating with the community 04. Community referral to health facilities 05. Volunteer protection and safety 06. Personal protection equipment (PPE) for highly infectious diseases 19. Psychosocial support 29. Hygiene promotion 30. Clean, safe household water 31. Good food hygiene 32. Sanitation 34. Handwashing with soap 36. Vector and reservoir control 38. Waste disposal and clean-up campaigns 43. Social mobilization and behaviour change