Last update: 2022-06-07
- Water contaminated with human waste (stools)
- Eating raw or undercooked meat or meat products (such as liver) and seafood (such as shellfish)
- Blood transfusion
- From mother to unborn baby during pregnancy
- Most people with hepatitis E have no signs or symptoms of disease at all.
- Symptoms can include mild fever, loss of appetite, abdominal pain, nausea, dark urine, pale stools and yellow skin or whites of eyes (jaundice).
- Pregnant women are particularly at risk of falling severely ill with Hepatitis E and can die.
- Safe, clean water (including a clean, covered water container in the household)
- Use of appropriate sanitation facilities (sound, clean latrines)
- Handwashing with soap (especially after using the toilet or cleaning a baby)
- Good food hygiene (thoroughly cooked food, covered food, clean utensils, etc.)
- Social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Pregnant women, especially those later in pregnancy (after the third month)
- People with liver diseases
- Displaced populations
- People living in areas that have poor water, sanitation and hygiene facilities and services
If an epidemic occurs
- Detect and refer cases to health facilities
- Promote handwashing with soap (especially after using the toilet or cleaning a baby)
- Promote safe, clean drinking water (including a clean, covered water container in the household)
- Promote use of appropriate sanitation facilities (sound, clean latrines)
- Promote good food hygiene (thoroughly cooked food, covered food, clean utensils, etc.)
- Increase social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Health promotion
Community-based assessment - questions
Make a map of the community and mark the information you gather on the map. Record other details.
- When did people start to fall sick with hepatitis E?
- How many people have fallen sick with hepatitis E? Where?
- How many people have died from hepatitis E? Where?
- How many people live in the affected community or area? How many children under five years of age live in the area? How many pregnant women live in the area?
- Who and where are the vulnerable people? Are children in the affected community
- generally well nourished?
- Do people always have enough food?
- How common is breastfeeding?
- Where do people obtain their drinking water? Is the source safe? Do people treat their water?
- What sanitation facilities (including communal latrines) are available? Do people use them?
- What handwashing facilities are available? Do they have soap?
- Where are the local health facilities and services? (Include traditional and community carers.)
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about caring for and feeding sick people? When babies and infants are sick, do women continue to breastfeed them?
- Do people have specific practices related to pregnancy, such as withholding fluids?
- Is a social mobilization or health promotion programme in place?
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about hygiene, sanitation and water?
- Which sources or channels of information do people use most?
- Are rumours or is misinformation about hepatitis E spreading in the community?
- Can people identify the signs and symptoms of dehydration?
- Do people know how to make oral rehydration solution (ORS)? Do they have resources at hand to make it?
- Do people know how to treat water?
01. Community-based surveillance 02. Community mapping 03. Communicating with the community 04. Community referral to health facilities 05. Volunteer protection and safety 12. Managing fever 19. Psychosocial support 29. Hygiene promotion 30. Clean, safe household water 31. Good food hygiene 32. Sanitation 33. Encouraging the use and maintanace of latrines 34. Handwashing with soap 43. Social mobilization and behaviour change