Last update: 2022-06-07
- Mosquito bite
- Mosquitoes that spread yellow fever bite during the day
- Most people who are infected with yellow fever do not get sick or have only a mild illness.
- Starts with sudden fever, headache and backache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting and tiredness.
- The sick person may get better for a short time but can get worse and develop jaundice (yellow skin or eyes).
- Sick persons may also bleed from the gums, nose or eyes, vomit blood, or have blood in their stools.
- Routine vaccination
- Prevention of mosquito bites by putting insect screens on windows and doors and personal protection (application of repellents, long sleeved clothes, etc.)
- Community clean-up campaigns to remove rubbish and cover water containers
- Elimination of mosquito breeding sites by removing standing water, fogging, and applying
- Social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Every person in the community who is not vaccinated can get yellow fever
- Young children and older people are more likely to become very sick or have complications
If an epidemic occurs
- Support mass vaccination campaigns
- Increase community-based surveillance
- Rapidly detect and refer suspected cases to health facilities
- Increase social mobilization and behaviour change communication
- Promote community clean-up campaigns to remove rubbish and cover water containers
- Encourage prevention of mosquito bites by placing insect screens on windows and doors and wearing personal protection (apply repellents, wear long sleeved clothes, etc.)
- Eliminate mosquito breeding sites by removing standing water, fogging, and applying larvicides
- Encourage young children and people who sleep during the day to sleep under a mosquito net (if windows and doors are not screened)
Community-based assessment - questions
Make a map of the community and mark the information you gather on the map. Record other details.
- When did people start to fall sick with yellow fever?
- How many people have fallen sick with yellow fever? Where?
- How many people have died? Where?
- How many people live in the affected community or area? How many children under five years of age live in the area?
- Who and where are the vulnerable people?
- Are children under five most affected? Or are other age groups, occupations, etc., more affected?
- Are children and adults in the affected community vaccinated against yellow fever?
- Is a vaccination campaign planned?
- Do strong cultural beliefs or perceptions about vaccination prevent children from being vaccinated?
- Do people usually cover their water containers (inside and outside)?
- How many houses have insect screens on the windows and doors?
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs regarding use of repellents, sprays, etc.?
- What are the usual ways of disposing of rubbish and solid waste in the community?
- Have the authorities established a vector control programme?
- Where are the local health facilities and services? (Include traditional and community carers.)
- What are the community’s habits, practices and beliefs about caring for and feeding sick people? When babies and infants are sick, do women continue to breastfeed them?
- Is a social mobilization or health promotion programme in place?
- Which sources of information do people use most?
- Are rumours or is misinformation about the disease spreading in the community?
25. Mass vaccination campaigns 24. Routine vaccinations 01. Community-based surveillance 02. Community mapping 03. Communicating with the community 04. Community referral to health facilities 05. Volunteer protection and safety 12. Managing fever 19. Psychosocial support 36. Vector and reservoir control 37. Mosquito nets / bed nets 38. Waste disposal and clean-up campaigns 43. Social mobilization and behaviour change